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S E A R C H    D V D B e a v e r

(aka "Badge of Evil" )

http://www.dvdbeaver.com/film/direct-chair/welles.htm
USA 1958

Touch of Evil begins with one of the most brilliant sequences in the history of cinema; and ends with one of the most brilliant final scenes ever committed to celluloid. In between unfurls a picture whose moral, sexual, racial, and aesthetic attitudes remain so radical as to cross borders established not only in 1958, but in the present age also. Yet, Touch of Evil has taken many forms. The film as released in 1958 was certainly compromised from Orson Welles’ vision, but a lengthy, arresting memo written by Welles to studio heads in 1957 – taking issue with a studio rough-cut – had some influence on a subsequent preview version shown to test audiences (and rediscovered in the mid-1970s) as well as the 1958 theatrical version. Forty years later, in 1998, Universal produced a reconstructed version of the film that takes into meticulous account the totality of Welles’ memo, and ostensibly represents the version of the film that most closely adheres to his original wishes.

Charlton Heston portrays Mike Vargas, the Mexican chief of narcotics who sets out to uncover the facts surrounding a car bomb that has killed a wealthy American businessman on the US side of the border. As Vargas investigates, his newly-wed wife Susie (Janet Leigh, two years before Hitchcock’s Psycho) is kidnapped by a gang out to exact vengeance for the prosecution of the brother of their leader (Akim Tamiroff). Meanwhile, Vargas’ enquiries become progressively more obfuscated by the American cop Hank Quinlan (played by Welles himself, in one of the most imposing and unforgettable screen performances of his career), a besotted incarnation of corruption who alternately conspires with Susie’s captors and seeks solace in the brothel of the Gypsy madame (Marlene Dietrich) who comforted him in bygone times.

***

Touch of Evil, the project with which—some 16 years after Citizen Kane—the 42-year-old Orson Welles tried (and failed) to stage a Hollywood comeback, is a movie of transcendent movie-ness and still-astonishing virtuosity. Revived for two weeks in a restored print, it is an even greater reproach to contemporary filmmaking than it was when it was dumped in neighborhood theaters on a double bill with Diana Dors in The Unholy Wife.

In December 1956, Welles was offered the role of the villain in a Universal thriller about a crooked cop. But the movie's star, Charlton Heston, thought that Welles was to direct the picture, and from the acorn of that misunderstanding emerged a splendid oak. With all due respect to the truncated Magnificent Ambersons, blighted Othello, and mossy Chimes at Midnight, Touch of Evil is the tallest tree in the wilderness of Welles's post-Kane career. "Unimaginably pleasurable to make," the maestro told Peter Bogdanovich. It shows.

Excerpt from J. Hoberman at The Village Voice located HERE

Posters

Theatrical Release: May 21st, 1958

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Comparison:

Universal (2-disc - 50th Anniversary Edition) - Region 1- NTSC vs. Universal Studios (US) - Region 1 - NTSC vs. Universal Studios (UK) - Region 2,4,5 - PAL vs. Masters of Cinema - Region 'B' - Blu-ray vs. Universal - Region FREE - Blu-ray

Big thanks to Pavel Borodin for all the single-disc DVD Screen Caps!

1) Universal (50th Anniversary Edition) - Region 1- NTSC LEFT
2) Universal Studios (US) - Region 1 - NTSC SECOND
3) Universal Studios (UK) - Region 2,4,5 - PAL THIRD

4) Masters of Cinema (UK) - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FOURTH

5) Universal - Region FREE Blu-ray RIGHT

 

Box Covers

Distribution

Universal Studios (50th Anniversary Edition)

Region 1 - NTSC

Universal Studios (US)

Region 1 - NTSC

Universal Studios (UK)
Region 2,4,5 - PAL

Masters of Cinema - Spine #  25

Region 'B' -  Blu-ray

Universal

Region FREE -  Blu-ray

Runtime 1:50:36, 1:48:48, 1:35:15 1:50:36 1:46:08 (4% PAL speedup) 1:50:39.633 (both 1.85 and 1.37 1998 Reconstructions)

1958 theatrical version 1:35:22.633 and Preview version: 1:48:59.783

Reconstruction: 1:50:40.950 (in 1.85)

 

Theatrical: 1:35:23:550 (in 1.85)

 Preview version: 1:48:59.824 (in 1.85)

Video

1.85:1 Original Aspect Ratio

16X9 enhanced
Average Bitrate: 7.35 mb/s
NTSC 704x480 29.97 f/s

1.85:1 Original Aspect Ratio

16X9 enhanced
Average Bitrate: 4.71 mb/s
NTSC 704x480 29.97 f/s

1.85:1 Original Aspect Ratio

16X9 enhanced
Average Bitrate: 8.68 mb/s
PAL 720x576 25.00 f/s

1080P Dual-layered Blu-ray

Disc Size: 49,807,775,303 bytes

Feature: 22,700,229,696 bytes

Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video

Total Video Bitrate: 24.99 Mbps

 

Feature: 25,298,646,528 bytes

Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video

Total Video Bitrate: 27.99 Mbps

1080P Dual-layered Blu-ray

Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video

Disc Size: 48,795,436,522 bytes

 

Reconstruction: 23,830,099,968 bytes

Video Bitrate: 19.98 Mbps

Theatrical Feature: 20,536,528,896 bytes

Video Bitrate: 19.98 Mbps

Preview Feature: 23,473,182,720 bytes

Video Bitrate: 19.98 Mbps

NOTE: The Vertical axis represents the bits transferred per second. The Horizontal is the time in minutes.

Bitrate:

Universal Studios (50th Anniverssary)

 

Bitrate:

Universal Studios (US)

 

Bitrate:

 

Universal Studios (UK)

 

Bitrate: MoC 1998 Reconstruction Blu-ray

 

Bitrate: Universal 1998 Reconstruction Blu-ray

 

 

 

Audio English (Dolby Digital Mono 2.0) English (Dolby Digital Mono 2.0)

English, DUBS: French, German, Italian, Spanish (Dolby Digital Mono 2.0)

DTS-HD Master Audio English 727 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 727 kbps / 16-bit (DTS Core: 2.0 / 48 kHz / 512 kbps / 16-bit)
Commentaries: Dolby Digital Audio English 192 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 192 kbps / DN -4dB

DTS-HD Master Audio English 1852 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 1852 kbps / 24-bit (DTS Core: 2.0 / 48 kHz / 1509 kbps / 24-bit)
* DTS-HD Master Audio English 1795 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 1795 kbps / 24-bit (DTS Core: 2.0 / 48 kHz / 1509 kbps / 24-bit)
* DTS-HD Master Audio English 1766 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 1766 kbps / 24-bit (DTS Core: 2.0 / 48 kHz / 1509 kbps / 24-bit)
Commentaries:

Dolby Digital Audio English 192 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 192 kbps / DN -4dB
Dolby Digital Audio English 192 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 192 kbps / DN -4dB
* Dolby Digital Audio English 192 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 192 kbps / DN -4dB
* Dolby Digital Audio English 192 kbps 2.0 / 48 kHz / 192 kbps / DN -4dB

Subtitles English (SDH), Spanish, French, none English, Spanish, French, none English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, Hebrew, Arabic, Russian, Turkish, Greek, none English (SDH), none English, Spanish, French, none
Features Release Information:
Studio: Universal Studios (Anniversary)

Aspect Ratio:
Widescreen letterboxed - 1.85:1

Edition Details:
Disc 1

• Commentary (Restored Version) with Charlton Heston, Janet Leigh and producer Rick Schmidlin
• Commentary (Restored Version) with producer Rick Schmidlin
• Bringing Evil to Life featurette (20:59, 4:3)
• Evil Lost and Found featurette (17:05, 4:3)
• Theatrical Trailer – (2:10, 4:3)

Disc 2

• Commentary (Theatrical Version) by critic F.X. Feeney
• Commentary (Preview Version) with journalist Jonathan Rosenbaum and James Naremore

 

58-page memo from Welles to the Studio

DVD Release Date: October 7th, 2008
Keep Case

Chapters 18

Release Information:
Studio: Universal Studios (US)

Aspect Ratio:
Widescreen letterboxed - 1.85:1

Edition Details:
• Welles' Memo
• Theatrical Trailer
• Production Notes
• Cast and Filmmakers

DVD Release Date: October 31st, 2000
Keep Case

Chapters 19

Release Information:
Studio: Universal Studios (UK)

Aspect Ratio:
Widescreen letterboxed - 1.85:1

Edition Details:
• Theatrical Trailer

 

DVD Release Date: November 10th, 2003
Keep Case

Chapters 21

Release Information:
Studio: Masters of Cinema

 

1080P Dual-layered Blu-ray

Disc Size: 49,807,775,303 bytes

Feature: 22,700,229,696 bytes

Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video

Total Video Bitrate: 24.99 Mbps

 

Feature: 25,298,646,528 bytes

Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video

Total Video Bitrate: 27.99 Mbps

 

Edition Details:
• New high-definition masters of five variants of the film: the 1958 Theatrical Version in both 1.37:1 and 1.85:1, the 1958 Preview Version in 1.85:1, and the 1998 Reconstructed Version in 1.37:1 and 1.85:1

• 4 x audio commentaries, featuring: restoration producer Rick Schmidlin; actors Charlton Heston & Janet Leigh, with Schmidlin; critic F. X. Feeney; and Welles scholars James Naremore & Jonathan Rosenbaum

• The original theatrical trailer, which includes alternate footage

• Bringing Evil to Life + Evil Lost and Found – two video pieces [21:00 + 17:06]

• A 56-page booklet featuring essays by Orson Welles, François Truffaut, André Bazin, and Terry Comito; interview excerpts with Welles; a timeline of the film’s history; and extensive notes on the film’s versions and ratios

 

58-page memo from Welles to the Studio

Blu-ray Release Date: November 14th, 2011

Chapters 1998 Recon - 22 / 1958 - 21

Release Information:
Studio: Universal Studios (
Blu-ray)

Aspect Ratio: 1.85:1

1080P Dual-layered Blu-ray

Codec: MPEG-4 AVC Video

Disc Size: 48,795,436,522 bytes

 

Reconstruction: 23,830,099,968 bytes

Video Bitrate: 19.98 Mbps

Theatrical Feature: 20,536,528,896 bytes

Video Bitrate: 19.98 Mbps

Preview Feature: 23,473,182,720 bytes

Video Bitrate: 19.98 Mbps

 

Edition Details:

• Reconstructed Version Commentary with Charlton Heston, Janet Leigh, and Reconstruction Producer Rick Schmidlin
• Theatrical Version Commentary with Writer/Filmmaker F.X. Feeney
• Preview Version Commentary with Orson Welles Historians Jonathan Rosenbaum and James Naremore
• Bringing Evil to Life featurette (20:59, 4:3 - in 480i)
• Evil Lost and Found featurette (17:06, 4:3 in 480i)
• Theatrical Trailer – (2:10, 4:3 in 480i)
 
 

58-page memo from Welles to the Studio

UltraViolet

Blu-ray Release Date: April 15th, 2014
Standard
Blu-ray Case inside custom cardboard case
Chapters: 18

 

Comments

NOTE: The below Blu-ray captures were taken directly from the Blu-ray disc.

ADDITION: Universal - Region FREE - Blu-ray - (April 2014) - Like the new Double Indemnity Masters of Cinema Blu-ray compared to the Universal 1080P - we have significant differences. Firstly the Universal don't bother with the dual-ratios. There is no 1.37:1 versions. They include all three versions ('Reconstruction', 'Theatrical' + 'Preview') in 1.85;1 on one, seamlessly-branched, Blu-ray disc. It is less robust than the UK BD showing a consistent 20 Mbps video bitrate for all three. What is most striking is the amount of information in the frame. The new Universal has more on the left and top edges. Now, I'm not  a lab or anything - I'm just one guy and my observations are that the quality generally leans to the Universal but, like Double Indemnity, the Masters of Cinema supports the grain structure to a notably higher level. After the first captures comparison (Janet Leigh and Charlton Heston walking by the car) it looked like the MoC would be dramatically better (Universal looked like it may be boosted and softer), but as I made more comparison captures (VERY difficult with an imbedded timeline in 'pause mode') - the Universal took the edge with superior contrast supporting slightly tighter detail. Aside from the cropping, I suspect the MoC is the most authentic in appearance. So I think both packages have a lot to offer.

The Universal audio is transferred more robustly, but I think you'd have to be extremely familiar with the film to be attentive to the marginally deeper soundstage. I have no idea which is most accurate to the production's intentions and the Universal DTS-HD Master sounded strong. Mancini's Mani title and background score sounded excellent via the lossless. The Universal Blu-ray has optional subtitles (English, French, Spanish) and is region FREE.

Universal duplicate their Anniversary DVD edition with the commentaries; on the 'Reconstructed Version' we get Charlton Heston, Janet Leigh, and reconstruction Producer Rick Schmidlin commentary. The 'Theatrical Version' includes an optional commentary with Writer/Filmmaker F.X. Feeney and the 'Preview Version' has Orson Welles historians Jonathan Rosenbaum and James Naremore. Also repeated are the 21-minute Bringing Evil to Life featurette and the 17-minute Evil Lost and Found featurette (both in 480i) as well as a Theatrical Trailer as in SD. The package offers the booklet of a 58-page memo from Welles to the Studio and the UltraViolet digital download code.

I'm keen to know about the cropping, but I think both packages have a lot of value. I think, those not residing in region 'B' (or 'FREE') will appreciate the ability to obtain the new Universal. 

***

ADDITION: Masters of Cinema - Region 'B' - Blu-ray - (October 2011) - Quite a phenomenal package from The Masters of Cinema. This is 2 dual-layered Blu-ray discs - the first has the 1 hour 51-minute long 1998 Reconstructions of Touch of Evil offered in both 1.85:1 and 1:37 aspect ratios. The widescreen version has a 2008 recorded optional commentary by the restoration producer, Rick Schmidlin. The "full-frame" version has the 1999 recorded optional commentary with Charlton Heston, Janet Leigh and Mr. Schmidlin. Sharing that disc are the two video extras; Bringing Evil to Life [21:00] and Evil Lost and Found [17:06] as well as a theatrical trailer (which includes alternate footage) - all three video extras in 480i.

Okay - disc 2 has the 1 hour-35-minute 1959 Theatrical version of Touch of Evil offered in both 1.85:1 and 1:37:1 aspect ratios.  There is also the 'Preview Version' in widescreen. The Theatrical Versions offer an optional, duplicated, commentary by critic F. X. Feeney (2008) and the 1 hour-48-minute 1.85:1 'Preview Version' has a commentary by Welles scholars James Naremore & Jonathan Rosenbaum (rated the BEST commentary of the Year HERE).

All commentaries and digital extras are found on the 2008 50th Anniversary DVD from Universal. So we get the theatrical in the optional 1.37:1 and the image and audio in HD and a magnificent 56-page booklet featuring essays by Orson Welles, François Truffaut, André Bazin, and Terry Comito; interview excerpts with Welles; a timeline of the film’s history; and extensive notes on the film’s versions and ratios.

The image is a darn-sight better than the SD versions - in just about every visual category. There is more detail visible as contrast, a function of sharpness, is crisper (far less muddy). The widescreen the 'scope' factor is far more defined and it's a pleasure to see the 1080P has infused some depth into the presentation. The static captures probably aren't doing the transfer justice as in-motion it is impressive. Touch of Evil has a lot of darkness and the HD handles it more adroitly with less noise and no undue digital artefacts. Black levels were strong on the 50th Anniversary DVD - but even here I can see a smidgeon of superiority via the Blu-ray rendering. We are talking over 3X the bitrate of the Anniversary SD edition(s) but, honestly, it seems like more. The 1:37 hi-def reconstruction may be even more detailed than the widescreen - we see this phenomenon frequently and I can't really tell if it is just an illusion. The Theatrical and Preview versions may be a small notch below the reconstructions in image quality but I wouldn't say it's significant enough to make issue. Overall we give an enthusiastic thumbs up for the new format editions and can't see any form of digital manipulation - we presume that any weakness would exist on the source. These transfers are clean and fans should be immensely pleased with the more film-like appearance.      

Audio pushes through via a DTS-HD Master stereo 2.0 channel at 727 kbps and although not thunderously deep - it does support the film with the flaw-free lossless transfer, that we believe, is the most accurate version of the sound of the film for a home theater viewing to date. Masters of Cinema have graciously added optional English subtitles to all 5 HD presentations.

Well, this is it the complete package for the Touch of Evil - a digital Omnibus of appreciation. I really enjoyed revisiting the commentaries (especially Rosenbaum/Naremore) as they only help bolster my understanding of the complete story of the film's production. The included book by MoC is at their usual impressive high standard. This has taken the already-essential and complete DVD sets and improved it - making it one of the more important Blu-rays of the entire year. Very strongly recommended!    

***

ADDITION: 50th Anniversary - October 8th: This new release contains the 1 hour 51 minute (Restored Version) on Disc 1 an both the 1 hour 36 minute (Theatrical Version), and the 1 hour 49 minute (Preview Version) on Disc 2.

This transfer is modestly improved over the previous SD-DVDs - with noticeably more detail and the contrast is improved with much superior black levels. Even the 2 other editions, shared on the second dual-layered disc, seem to have excelled transfers as compared to the older editions (see comparison captures below of Marlene Dietrich).

I, personally, didn't notice an improvement with the audio (which was reasonably fine) and English, Spanish or French subtitles are still offered.

The huge additions include the 4 commentaries and the complete 'Theatrical' and 'Preview' versions of the film. It is great to hear the plethora of Welles info and the history of the film which extends to a bizarre and miraculous microcosm of the Hollywood system and the perseverance of artistic freedom. It's great to hear Jonathan Rosenbaum whom I could listen to all day. These commentarists have given much of their lives to knowledge of Orson Welles and obviously respect for his achievements. Truly one could drown in these discussions that, essentially, garner vast appreciation for the creation of the film. The first disc also has two relevant featurettes that total about 40 minutes. The original memo from Welles to the studio is included in the package. great reading!

We most whole-heartedly recommend - especially to students of film and Orson Welles. This remains an important, dark entry in cinema history.

Gary Tooze

***

 

ON THE ORIGINAL SD-DVDS: I think the image quality of these two releases is quite similar. The region 2/4/5 DVD has audio language options and offers subtitles in multiple languages, which could be useful for many people. The Region 1 DVD has more extras, but all of them are text-based.

 - Pavel Borodin


Menus

50th Anniversary DVD

 

 

Disc 2 - 50th Anniversary

 



(Universal Studios (US) - Region 1 - NTSC - LEFT vs. Universal Studios (UK) - Region 2,4,5 - PAL - RIGHT)
 

 

Masters of Cinema (UK) - Region 'B' - Blu-ray

 

 

Universal - Region FREE - Blu-ray Selection Screen

 


 

 

CLICK EACH BLU-RAY CAPTURE TO SEE ALL IMAGES IN FULL 1920X1080 RESOLUTION

 

Screen Captures

 

1) Universal (50th Anniversary Edition) - Region 1- NTSC TOP
2) Universal Studios (US) - Region 1 - NTSC SECOND
3) Universal Studios (UK) - Region 2,4,5 - PAL THIRD

4) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.37:1  - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FOURTH

5) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.85:1 - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FIFTH

6) Universal (US) Reconstruction 1.85 - Region FREE Blu-ray BOTTOM

 


1) Universal (50th Anniversary Edition) - Region 1- NTSC TOP
2) Universal Studios (US) - Region 1 - NTSC SECOND
3) Universal Studios (UK) - Region 2,4,5 - PAL THIRD

4) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.37:1  - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FOURTH

5) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.85:1 - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FIFTH

6) Universal (US) Reconstruction 1.85 - Region FREE Blu-ray BOTTOM

 


 

1) Universal (50th Anniversary Edition) - Region 1- NTSC TOP
2) Universal Studios (US) - Region 1 - NTSC SECOND
3) Universal Studios (UK) - Region 2,4,5 - PAL THIRD

4) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.37:1  - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FOURTH

5) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.85:1 - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FIFTH

6) Universal (US) Reconstruction 1.85 - Region FREE Blu-ray BOTTOM

 


1) Universal (50th Anniversary Edition) - Region 1- NTSC TOP
2) Theatrical
(50th Anniversary Edition) - SECOND

3) Preview (50th Anniversary Edition) - THIRD

4) Universal Studios (US) - Region 1 - NTSC FOURTH
5) Universal Studios (UK) - Region 2,4,5 - PAL FIFTH

6) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.37:1 - Region 'B' - Blu-ray SIXTH

7) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.85:1  - Region 'B' - Blu-ray SEVENTH

8) Universal (US) Reconstruction 1.85 - Region FREE Blu-ray BOTTOM

 


 

1) Universal (50th Anniversary Edition) - Region 1- NTSC TOP
2) Universal Studios (US) - Region 1 - NTSC SECOND
3) Universal Studios (UK) - Region 2,4,5 - PAL THIRD

4) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.37:1  - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FOURTH

5) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.85:1 - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FIFTH

6) Universal (US) Reconstruction 1.85 - Region FREE Blu-ray BOTTOM

 


1) Universal (50th Anniversary Edition) - Region 1- NTSC TOP
2) Universal Studios (US) - Region 1 - NTSC SECOND
3) Universal Studios (UK) - Region 2,4,5 - PAL THIRD

4) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.37:1  - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FOURTH

5) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.85:1 - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FIFTH

6) Universal (US) Reconstruction 1.85 - Region FREE Blu-ray BOTTOM

 

 


 

1) Universal (50th Anniversary Edition) - Region 1- NTSC TOP
2) Universal Studios (US) - Region 1 - NTSC SECOND
3) Universal Studios (UK) - Region 2,4,5 - PAL THIRD

4) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.37:1  - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FOURTH

5) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.85:1 - Region 'B' - Blu-ray FIFTH

6) Universal (US) Reconstruction 1.85 - Region FREE Blu-ray BOTTOM

 

 

1) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.85:1  - Region 'B' - Blu-ray TOP

2) Universal (US) Reconstruction 1.85 - Region FREE Blu-ray BOTTOM

 

 

1) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.85:1  - Region 'B' - Blu-ray TOP

2) Universal (US) Reconstruction 1.85 - Region FREE Blu-ray BOTTOM

 

 

1) Masters of Cinema (UK) Reconstruction 1.37:1  - Region 'B' - Blu-ray TOP

2) Universal (US) Reconstruction 1.85 - Region FREE Blu-ray BOTTOM

 


Hit Counter


Report Card:

 

Image:

Blu-rays

Sound:

Blu-rays

Extras: Blu-rays

 

Box Covers

Distribution

Universal Studios (50th Anniversary Edition)

Region 1 - NTSC

Universal Studios (US)

Region 1 - NTSC

Universal Studios (UK)
Region 2,4,5 - PAL

Masters of Cinema - Spine #  25

Region 'B' -  Blu-ray

Universal

Region FREE -  Blu-ray


Associated Reading (CLICK COVERS or TITLES for more information)

 

This is Orson Welles
by Orson Welles, Peter Bogdanovich, Jonathan Rosenbaum
Orson Welles on Shakespeare: The W.P.A. and Mercury Theatre Playscripts
by Orson Welles, Simon Callow, Richard France
Orson Welles: Interviews (Conversations with Filmmakers (Paperbacks))
by Orson Welles, Mark W. Estrin
The Trial
by Franz Kafka
Orson Welles : The Stories of His Life
by Peter Conrad
Rosebud : The Story of Orson Welles
by David Thomson
Encyclopedia of Orson Welles (Great Filmmakers)
by Chuck Berg, Tom Erskine, John C. Tibbetts, James M. Welsh, Thomas L. Erskine
Chimes at Midnight: Orson Welles, Director (Rutgers Films in Print)
by Bridget Gellert Lyons



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Gary Tooze